Finnish M91
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0033.jpg (78577 bytes)

At the time of the Russian revolution Finland was under the rule of the Tsar. When Nicholas II was deposed Finland declared its independence and defeated the Russian forces in Finland, but retained stores of arms. With an urgent need to build an army to defend itself from the real threat of Russia and many Mosins already on hand it only made sense to adopt it as the primary rifle. Between WWI and WWII Finland actively traded other types of rifles in their inventory with countries across Europe and Asia for Mosins which they had captured. The condition ranged from serviceable to “parts guns”. With an abundance of spare parts it was only natural to use them to build “new” rifles that could be put to use. From 1922 to 1924 Suomen Ampumataruikehdas made a small number of M91s marked SAT Riihimaki on the barrel shank. In 1925 Finland began production of barrels at Tikkakoski (Tikka) which were assembled into M91 configuration with dates of 1925, 1926, and 1927. The later 1926 and all 1927 barrels were a heavier type with a step near the muzzle to allow the use of the standard bayonet. During the Continuation War Finland also built many M91s with barrels made by Tikka and VKT.  Barrel blanks were also purchased from Belgium but were not assembled until post war and are known as "B barrels".

The rifle pictured at the top of the page is in typical early configuration with the stepped barrel, early barrel bands and Russian stock with sling slots. The rifle pictured below is in typical late configuration with a straight barrel, late barrel bands and Finnish two piece stock with sling swivels in escutcheons with round holes. However, Finnish M91s can be found with a mix of features on rifles of any age as there were no set standards, especially during later refurbishment.

0010.jpg (70900 bytes)

For all models see the Mosin Nagant Rifle Specifications page.
Weight Over All
Cleaning Rod Length (approx.)
9 1/2 lbs.
51 1/2"
130.8 cm.
31 1/2"
80.0 cm.
47 1/2"
120.7 cm.
.3095" 27"
68.6 cm.
73.7 cm.


Years of Production by Arsenal
For all models see the Mosin Nagant Rifle Years of Production page.
1922 to 1924 1925 to 1927
1940 to 1943
1940 to 1942 1942 barrel date
Assembled post war


Barrel Markings
The dates are when the marking was used.
SATRiihimaki.jpg (25486 bytes)
(courtesy of Steve K.)
0139.jpg (28456 bytes)
Dated on bottom of barrel
0140.jpg (16674 bytes)
0141.jpg (21817 bytes)
0142.jpg (17082 bytes)
VKT (Valtion Kirvaaritehdas)
0143.jpg (15740 bytes)
VKT (Valtion Kirvaaritehdas)
0144.jpg (20314 bytes)
0145.jpg (19511 bytes)
0146.jpg (20224 bytes)


Receiver Tang Markings

Finnish tang markings can be any Russian or Soviet marks, but are usually 1919 or earlier.


Stock Variations
Reused Russian Stock 0033.jpg (78577 bytes)
Russian Stock with new fore end spliced on 0067.jpg (52006 bytes)
Finnish one piece stock (uncommon) 0079.jpg (62765 bytes)
Finnish two piece stock 0010.jpg (70900 bytes)
Finnish post war two piece stock 0080.jpg (66005 bytes)


Reused Russian Hex Receiver
Very rare Finnish M91s built on round receivers are known.


1927 Tikka Stepped Barrel
1901.jpg (13404 bytes)


Sight Variations
Finnish M91s have the same type sights as the Russian Konovalov design of 1908.  The primary difference is the Finns remarked the rear sight bases in meters utilizing the existing notches.  Occasionally an extra notch is cut at the rear of the base and is marked 2 (200 meters).  Typically the numbers are placed on the right side of the base which was left blank by the Russians, but there are lots of variations in the manner of the numbering and how the existing Russian numbers were treated.
1071.jpg (12437 bytes) 1073.jpg (9346 bytes)

1072.jpg (8165 bytes)

1124.jpg (7138 bytes)

Finnish M91 front sight bases are integral to the barrel and identical to the Russian version.  However, the variation in blades is tremendous.   Many of them are pictured below with brief descriptions.

Russian barleycorn

1005.jpg (13069 bytes)

1006.jpg (7185 bytes)

Curved base, flat top 1074.jpg (13936 bytes) 1075.jpg (7301 bytes)
Curved base, flat top, notched rear 1076.jpg (9942 bytes) 1077.jpg (6674 bytes)
Curved base, curved top 1078.jpg (8661 bytes) 1079.jpg (6658 bytes)
Curved base, curved top, notched rear 1080.jpg (11098 bytes) 1081.jpg (7497 bytes)
No base, flat top 1082.jpg (12583 bytes) 1083.jpg (8534 bytes)
No base, flat top, notched rear 1084.jpg (9339 bytes) 1085.jpg (6951 bytes)
No base, curved top, notched rear 1088.jpg (9896 bytes) 1089.jpg (7172 bytes)
No base, untapered blade
1090.jpg (12824 bytes) 1091.jpg (6871 bytes)
Semi-curved base with wider dovetail, flat top
1092.jpg (13669 bytes) 1093.jpg (7422 bytes)


Cleaning rod nut, tapered hole in front only,
hole in top threaded to receive nose cap screw to aid in removing nut
rodnut001a.JPG (4611 bytes) rodnut001b.JPG (4568 bytes) rodnut001c.JPG (3112 bytes)


Nose cap nosecapearly.JPG (4850 bytes)


Sling Slots Front Rear
Russian with screwed in place escutcheons RusEF.jpg (5552 bytes) RusER.jpg (5474 bytes)
Russian w/ Finnish hangers RusFinF.jpg (5771 bytes) RusFinR.jpg (6433 bytes)
Escutcheon plate with round hole and hangers FinF.jpg (6794 bytes) FinR.jpg (5162 bytes)


Early Russian M91 barrel band Late Russian M91 barrel band
M91earlyband.JPG (8691 bytes) M91lateband.JPG (6689 bytes)
Barrel band retaining pin (early, rare) Barrel band retaining screw (late)
Finnbandpin.JPG (24338 bytes) Finnbandscrew.JPG (30724 bytes)


handgM91.JPG (22299 bytes)
Handguard end rivets
Copper hgc008a.JPG (10775 bytes) hgc008b.JPG (8030 bytes)
Small aluminum hgc009a.JPG (11718 bytes) hgc009b.JPG (8413 bytes)
Large aluminum hgc010a.JPG (12161 bytes) hgc010b.JPG (8359 bytes)


Bayonet socket
M91bay.JPG (13296 bytes)

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